By Michael Ignatieff
Subtitled "The prison within the commercial Revolution 1750-1850", "A simply degree of soreness" describes the instant in 18th century England whilst the trendy penal complex and its ambiguous legacy have been born. In depicting how the whip, the logo and the gallows - public punishments as soon as intended to cow the unruly bad into passivity - got here to get replaced via the "moral administration" of the criminal and the proposal that the legal negative may be fascinated with their very own rehabilitation. Michael Ignatieff records the increase of a brand new belief of sophistication family and with it a brand new philosophy of punishment, one directed now not on the physique yet on the brain. "A simply degree of soreness" is a hugely atmospheric and compellingly written paintings of social historical past, which has already develop into a vintage research of its topic. For the Penguin variation the writer will supply an afterword about the polemics which the book's first book in 1978.
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Additional info for A Just Measure of Pain: The Penitentiary in the Industrial Revolution, 1750–1850
67 Many contractors in the outwork trades learned invaluable lessons in managing an extended division of labor from their experiences in the workrooms of bridewells and workhouses. 68 Yet most of the lessons learned were negative. The rapid turnover of prisoners and the proverbially low productivity of forced labor made it difficult to make a profit, and most contractors defaulted or gave up on their contracts. The failure of attempts to exploit the labor of the incarcerated by 17 50 must have spurred outwork masters, desiring to profit from large-scale division of labor, to develop their own institution, the factory, for the exploitation of free labor.
Howard discovered a beer and wine club in operation at King's Bench and a committee of inquiry in 1813 discovered a music society there. 62 The second type of institution, the county and borough jail, was, like most eighteenth century institutions, heterogeneous in design and size. Some-for example, the county jails at Lancaster, Gloucester, and York-were the dungeons of medieval castles, while others, particularly those in small market towns, were little more than strong rooms above a shop or an inn.
After claiming their "clergy" (until 1705 giving proof of literacy by reciting a passage of scripture, the "neck verse," and after 1705 granted without requirement of proof), they were whipped or branded on the thumb and then discharged. 13 It is not clear which offenses were covered by benefit of clergy. " Thus in 1717 an act was passed disallowing the privilege of clergy in housebreaking cases. Blackstone observed that housebreaking was made capital because of "improvements in trade and opulence"-in other words, because of the increasing number of commercial properties and places of business requiring protection.
A Just Measure of Pain: The Penitentiary in the Industrial Revolution, 1750–1850 by Michael Ignatieff