Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations (1996)(en)(48s) by Lower S.K. PDF

By Lower S.K.

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Using the latter as a guide, the diagonal portions of lines 3 and 4 can easily be drawn. The crossing point of the plots for the acid and base forms corresponds to the condition [HAc] = [Ac− ]. 75 for acetic acid. 0005 M. 3 unit. 3, By following this example, you should be able to construct a similar diagram for any monoprotic acid, weak or strong; the only numbers you need are the pKa of the acid, and its nominal concentration [A− ]. The resulting graph will provide a reasonably precise indication of the concentrations of all four related species in the solution over the entire pH range.

As an example, consider a solution of the acid HA in water. The two proton-deficient species possible in such a solution are the conjugate base A− and OH− . These two species are capable of accepting protons and are therefore the source of acid neutralizing capacity. However, any H3 O+ ions already present in the solution will detract from the [ANC], so we need to subtract this quantity: [ANC] = [A− ] + [OH− ] − [H+ ] = Ca α1 + [OH− ] − [H+ ] (57) [ANC] expresses the net deficiency of protons with respect to the reference level of HA and H2 O.

In order to maintain charge balance, some of the CO2 produced by normal metabolism of these food acids must be converted to bicarbonate (that is, K+ HCO− 3 ) which is a weak base. 1 Maintenance of acid-base balance It is remarkable that the pH of most cellular fluids can be kept within such a narrow range, given the large number of processes that tend to upset it. This is due to the exquisite balance between a large number of interlinked processes operating at many different levels. Acid-base balance in the body is maintained by two general mechanisms: selective excretion of acids or bases, and by the buffering action of weak acid-base systems in body fluids.

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Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations (1996)(en)(48s) by Lower S.K.

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