By Abraham A. Ungar
This can be the 1st publication on analytic hyperbolic geometry, totally analogous to analytic Euclidean geometry. Analytic hyperbolic geometry regulates relativistic mechanics simply as analytic Euclidean geometry regulates classical mechanics. The e-book offers a singular gyrovector house method of analytic hyperbolic geometry, totally analogous to the well known vector house method of Euclidean geometry. A gyrovector is a hyperbolic vector. Gyrovectors are equivalence periods of directed gyrosegments that upload based on the gyroparallelogram legislations simply as vectors are equivalence sessions of directed segments that upload in line with the parallelogram legislations. within the ensuing “gyrolanguage” of the ebook one attaches the prefix “gyro” to a classical time period to intend the analogous time period in hyperbolic geometry. The prefix stems from Thomas gyration, that's the mathematical abstraction of the relativistic influence referred to as Thomas precession. Gyrolanguage seems to be the language one must articulate novel analogies that the classical and the fashionable during this e-book percentage. The scope of analytic hyperbolic geometry that the publication provides is cross-disciplinary, regarding nonassociative algebra, geometry and physics. As such, it truly is evidently suitable with the unique conception of relativity and, rather, with the nonassociativity of Einstein speed addition legislations. besides analogies with classical effects that the ebook emphasizes, there are awesome disanalogies besides. hence, for example, in contrast to Euclidean triangles, the perimeters of a hyperbolic triangle are uniquely made up our minds by way of its hyperbolic angles. based formulation for calculating the hyperbolic side-lengths of a hyperbolic triangle by way of its hyperbolic angles are offered within the publication. The e-book starts off with the definition of gyrogroups, that's absolutely analogous to the definition of teams. Gyrogroups, either gyrocommutative and nongyrocommutative, abound in workforce conception. unusually, the likely structureless Einstein speed addition of specified relativity seems to be a gyrocommutative gyrogroup operation. Introducing scalar multiplication, a few gyrocommutative gyrogroups of gyrovectors turn into gyrovector areas. The latter, in flip, shape the environment for analytic hyperbolic geometry simply as vector areas shape the environment for analytic Euclidean geometry. via hybrid options of differential geometry and gyrovector areas, it truly is proven that Einstein (Möbius) gyrovector areas shape the environment for Beltrami–Klein (Poincaré) ball types of hyperbolic geometry. ultimately, novel functions of Möbius gyrovector areas in quantum computation, and of Einstein gyrovector areas in unique relativity, are awarded.
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Extra info for Analytic Hyperbolic Geometry. Mathematical Foundations and Applications
1/2 √ = 2πa 2 cosh2 ψ dψ 0 √ 2πa 2 = (cosh 2ψ + 1) dψ 2 0 √ 2πa 2 sinh 2ψ +ψ = 2 2 0 πa 2 = √ [sinh ψ cosh ψ + ψ]0 2 √ √ 1 πa 2 √ = √ [ (2 2)(3) + sinh−1 2 2 ] = πa 2 6 + √ sinh−1 2 2 . 9 Verify by direct calculation that ∇ · (a × b) = b · (∇ × a) − a · (∇ × b). The proof of this standard result for the divergence of a vector product is most easily carried out in Cartesian coordinates though, of course, the result is valid in any three-dimensional 33 Vector calculus coordinate system. LHS = ∇ · (a × b) ∂ ∂ ∂ = (ay bz − az by ) + (az bx − ax bz ) + (ax by − ay bx ) ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂by ∂by ∂bx ∂bx ∂bz ∂bz + ay + az − + − + = ax − ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂ay ∂ay ∂ax ∂ax ∂az ∂az + bx − + by − + + bz − ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂y = −a · (∇ × b) + b · (∇ × a) = RHS.
Calculate the tangent vectors at a general point, show that they are mutually orthogonal and deduce that the appropriate scale factors are hu = hv = (cosh2 u − cos2 v)1/2 , hφ = cosh u cos v. Find the most general function ψ(u) of u only that satisfies Laplace’s equation ∇ 2 ψ = 0. e. y = 0, the curves u = constant have x and z connected by x2 z2 + = 1. cosh2 u sinh2 u This general form is that of an ellipse, with foci at (±1, 0). With u = 0, it is the line joining the two foci (covered twice).
Its axis is parallel to the z-axis and passes through the points (a − c, b, z). The line element dr has components (−c sin θ dθ, c cos θ dθ, c2 dθ) and so the line integral of f along γ is given by 2π f · dr = γ y(−c sin θ) − x(c cos θ) + c2 dθ 0 2π = −c(b + c sin θ) sin θ − c(a − c + c cos θ) cos θ + c2 dθ 0 2π = −bc sin θ − c2 sin2 θ − c(a − c) cos θ − c2 cos2 θ + c2 dθ 0 = 0 − πc2 − 0 − πc2 + 2πc2 = 0. However, this does not imply that f is a conservative field since (i) γ is not a closed loop, and (ii) even if it were, the line integral has to vanish for every loop, not just for a particular one.
Analytic Hyperbolic Geometry. Mathematical Foundations and Applications by Abraham A. Ungar