By Alberte Pagán
Andy Warhol quizá sea el artista más well known del siglo xx. Pero su cine, al que se dedicó intensamente a partir de 1963, cuando entraba en el período más notorio de su carrera como pintor, sigue siendo desconocido para el gran público. Influido inicialmente por las películas de Ron Rice y Jack Smith, Warhol pronto encontró su propia voz en una serie de películas minimalistas ("Sleep", "Empire") que lo convertirían en pionero del estructuralismo cinematográfico. Sin renunciar a sus presupuestos artísticos, alcanzó el éxito comercial con "My Hustler" y "Chelsea Girls". Reconocido como innovador, podemos rastrear su huella tanto en el cine formal más radical como en, al otro lado del espectro, las gamberradas del cine "punk" o espacios televisivos como "Gran Hermano" y similares. Este libro ofrece un paseo por l. a. materialidad de las películas de Warhol, lejos de enfoques conceptuales que utilizan las películas más como pretextos para el debate teórico que como textos para el análisis crítico.
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In praising the archery of the south generally, and of Gwent and Morgan in particular, he contrasts strongly the spear-armed Welsh of Snowdon and Merioneth1. In the Evesham campaign of the civil war, as well as in Edward's regular wars against Wales, these bowmen of the south were mostly Edward's allies, and Llewelyn's men were the spearmen. An exception has to be made, indeed, in connexion with the campaign of 1294, but even then it will be found that the men of Morgan, and probably those of Gwent also, revolted against their march lords and not against the king.
J. E. M. Page ix Contents pages Preface vviii Chapter I England and Wales before 1277 134 The 'Normanization' of the march 1 Counties palatine 3 The 'Laws of Breteuil' 4 The Normans in North Wales 6 In South Wales 10 The house of Clare 12 Giraldus Cambrensis 15 Invasion of Ireland 17 Results of civil war in England 19 State of the marches in the thirteenth century 20 Llewelyn ap Gruffudd 23 His alliance with Simon de Montfort 24 Retrospect of military developments since Hastings 25 Battle of Lewes 30 Evesham and onwards 32 Chapter II An Edwardian Army 35109 Knight-service 35 Scutage in 1279 36 Details of great fiefs 39 How scutage was assessed 42 Cavalry raised by feudal system 45 Principle of a quota 46 Question of mounts and equipment 49 The constitution of a retinue 55 The retinues of earls 57 Of lords marchers 61 Of other barons 63 Lack of military experience 66 Introduction of a system of pay 68 Military legislation 72 Feudal and paid service 74 Maximum of available cavalry 80 Horses and armour 82 The household 84 Tenure by serjeanty 87 Crossbowmen and crossbows 88 Other infantry 92 Edward's improvements in organization 95 The longbow 99 Tactics 104 The ships of the Cinque Ports 106 A note on scutage 108 Page x Chapter III The War of 1277 110148 Llewelyn and Gloucester 110 The treaty of 1267 111 Llewelyn during Edward's absence 111 Fear of revival of Montfortian party 114 Preparations for war 115 State of the march 116 Earl of Warwick at Chester 118 Mortimer and Lincoln at Montgomery 120 Pain de Chaworth in South Wales, and treaty with Rhys 123 Results of preliminary campaigns 125 The muster of the feudal host 126 The fleet 128 The plan of campaign 129 Flint 130 Reinforcements, and end of feudal forty days 131 Grey's horse 133 Rhuddlan, Diganwy, and Anglesey 134 Llewelyn submits 135 Edmund at Aberystwith 136 Review of details of infantry and workmen 138 The budget of the war 140 The treaty with Llewelyn 142 English ideas in Wales 142 Flint and the Cantreds 144 Rhuddlan 145 Llanbadarn and South Wales 146 The central march 147 Builth 148 Chapter IV The War of 1282 and 1283 149197 Features of the second war 149 List of Welsh grievances 150 David seizes Hawarden 153 Raises South Wales 154 Edward's writs from Devizes 155 The first forces concentrated 155 New writs, question of paid and feudal service 156 Muster in June at Chester 159 Advance on Hope by Grey 161 By Edward on Flint and Rhuddlan 162 Gloucester's defeat at Llandeilo 166 Appointment of William de Valence 167 Feudal force in South Wales 168 Advance into Cardiganshire 169 Llewelyn in Carmarthenshire 170 Earl of Hereford in Brecknock 170 Mortimer on the Severn 171 Fleet and feudal quotas at Rhuddlan 173 Infantry in main army 174 Tany in Anglesey 176 Edward occupies Denbigh and the Clwyd 178 Defeat of Tany near Bangor in November 179 Llewelyn on the Wye in December 181 Battle of Orewin bridge 183 Reoccupation of Llanbadarn 185 Finances 185 Aid from Gascony 186 Numbers of the Gascons 188 Renewed advance in January, and fall of Dolwyddelan 190 Occupation of Conway in March 191 David in Merioneth 192 Siege of Bere in April 192 David captured in June 194 The budget of the war 196 Page xi Chapter V The Peace Settlement and Rhys's Rising 198219 Castles and disposition of troops in 1283 and 1284 198 The annexation 199 Edward's royal progress, the northern counties 200 Tibotot and the southern counties 200 Giffard and the Earl of Hereford 201 The Earl of Gloucester 202 Details of the household 203 Rising of Rhys, general state of South Wales, and his grievances 204 Concentration of the English and Welsh friendlies 207 Tibotot's corps 207 Tthe Earl of Cornwall's 208 Grey's and l'Estrange's 209 Cavalry 210 The Earl of Gloucester in Brecknock 211 Siege of Dryslwyn 212 Army disbanded 213 Plukenet in garrison at Dryslwyn 214 Fresh outbreak 214 Relief of Dynevor 215 Siege of Emlyn 216 Pursuit of Rhys 217 Settlement of Carmarthenshire 217 New appointments 218 Cost of this war 219 Chapter VI The Custom of the March 220239 Edward returns from Gascony 220 Position of the Earl of Gloucester 221 Position of the Earl of Hereford 222 His feud with Giffard 222 Feud between the two earls 224 Edward forbids private war 225 Gloucester's defiance and raids 225 Hereford's suit against Gloucester 227 Marcher lords refuse to swear in court 229 Facts proved against Gloucester in his absence 231 The king takes the case himself before a full court 231 Hereford's transgressions in the interval, and sentence 232 Gloucester's excuses for previous absence, and defence concerning the three raids 233 Sentence against Gloucester on the old charge 235 Nobles come forward to offer security 235 Final sentence at Westminster, imprisonment, and confiscation 236 Other cases of march disobedience 237 Edward taxes the lords marchers 239 Chapter VII The Last Rising; Madoc, Maelgwn, and Morgan; 1294 and 1295 240270 Expedition to Gascony of 1294 240 Enrolment of Welsh foot 241 Causes of Welsh rising 242 Unexpected outbreak 244 Edward's steps to concentrate troops 244 Letters of protection for the war 245 Campaign in South Wales 248 Case of the Earl of Norfolk 250 Revolt in Glamorgan 251 Brecknock, Page xii Builth, Bere 252 Carnarvon and Denbigh 253 Edward's advance 254 Disaster at Bangor, and Edward blockaded in Conway 255 Victory of Earl of Warwick over the Welsh, and relief of Conway 256 Edward pauses before advancing afresh 258 Relief of western castles by sea 259 English army reconstituted 260 Grey's paid cavalry 262 King's progress to Anglesey, thence along west coast 263 Thence into South Wales 264 Return northwards and thence to England 265 Revolt finally quelled by Havering 265 Investigation into grievances of Welsh 266 Castle-building at Carnarvon and Beaumaris 267 Chapter VIII Events leading from the Welsh Wars 271305 Evidence of armies in Flanders and Scotland 271 Cavalry of the campaign of 1296 273 The constitutional troubles of 1297 274 Cavalry in Flanders 277 Infantry in Flanders 280 Question of the Confirmatio Cartarum in Edward's absence 280 Effect of Wallace's victory on English constitutional history 283 Forces at Newcastle and Berwick early in 1298 284 New army enrolled for summer of 1298 286 The foot nearly all Welsh 287 The paid cavalry 288 The feudal cavalry 290 Approximate total 292 Hemingburgh's account of Falkirk 292 Edward's difficulties in spite of victory 293 No campaign in 1299 297 The Caerlaverock campaign 299 Edward and his barons 303 Last war in Scotland 304 Appendix: I.
One more hint we get from Gerald. In praising the archery of the south generally, and of Gwent and Morgan in particular, he contrasts strongly the spear-armed Welsh of Snowdon and Merioneth1. In the Evesham campaign of the civil war, as well as in Edward's regular wars against Wales, these bowmen of the south were mostly Edward's allies, and Llewelyn's men were the spearmen. An exception has to be made, indeed, in connexion with the campaign of 1294, but even then it will be found that the men of Morgan, and probably those of Gwent also, revolted against their march lords and not against the king.
Andy Warhol by Alberte Pagán